“Scalar Energy” Controversy

Updated 12/12/2010


No resolution is attempted, but rather various, perhaps conflicting perspectives, are brought together.


“Scalar Energy”, Einstein and Maxwell


“Scalar waves”; also called "non-Maxwellian waves", or "Teslawellen" (tr., "Tesla waves"),  as distinct from the common scalar fields, such as temperature and pressure of a gas, and electric potential (voltage) [1] are often defined as "electromagnetic longitudinal waves". [2] While some attribute great significance to these waves, they are apparently ignored by mainstream science.


Numerous websites state that “scalar energy” is attributed to Maxwell and that Einstein acknowledged “scalar energy”. [3]
Maxwell’s original equations referred to  electrostatic scalar potential and magnetic scalar potential, as well as magnetic vector potential, and are not included in the standard set of four Maxwell’s equations. Although vector potential corresponds to an angular momentum in a dynamic system, scalar quantities were associated with electrostatics, not dynamic systems in time. [4]
Google searches of “Einstein scalar energy” yield only a connection between Einstein and scalar field theory in mathematical cosmological theories. [5]
Earth Immersed in  Longitudinal Electromagnetic Waves
Gerhard Bruhn, of Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany, writing for the Journal of Scientific Investigation, argues that longitudinal electromagnetic waves, often associated with “scalar waves”, do not exist. The argument is based on the fact that EM waves have to satisfy both the wave equation and Maxwell’s laws, which Bruhn assumes to be the standard four equation “edited” version of Maxwell’s laws. Since both electric and magnetic fields are involved, the resulting wave can only be transverse.[6]


According to mainstream physics, Maxwell's equations do lead to the appearance of longitudinal waves under some circumstances; in either guided waves or plasma waves. [7] Both guided and plasma waves exist in the earth’s geomagnetic field. [8]


The longitudinal mode of a resonant cavity is a particular guided standing wave pattern formed by waves confined in a cavity. The longitudinal modes correspond to the wavelengths of the wave which are reinforced by constructive interference after many reflections from the cavity's reflecting surfaces.


The Schumann resonance is an example of a cavity resonance, as may be inferred from the  American Journal of Physics paper: Schumann's resonances: A particular example of a spherical resonant cavity. [9]


Wikipedia [10] says: “The Schumann Resonance is a set of terrestrial stationary waves in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Lower frequencies and those at or below longwave bands travel most efficiently as a longitudinal wave and create stationary waves.


The fundamental wavelength of the SR is equal to the circumference of the earth. This wave would travel around the earth in about 0.13 seconds, or 7.8 cycles around the earth in one second (Hz) The backyardastronomy site provides an illustration of the wave, reproduced below. [11]



Image from: http://www.backyardastronomy.net/schumann_resonance.html


Confusion might be minimized by noting 1) the diagram is a cross section of the spherical wave; 2) the direction of propagation of the EM field is radial, thus the wave is in longitudinal motion;  Although the wave “moves” and its harmonics have frequencies, it is considered “stationary” because it is confined to the cavity between the earth and ionosphere.


Lightning as well as the aurora and ionosphere form plasmas, [12] and plasma waves such as the aurora in the earth’s magnetosphere may under certain circumstances be longitudinal. [13] It has also been suggested that the earth’s core may be plasma like. [14]


Are geomagnetic longitudinal waves “scalar”?


Magnetic Vector Potential and the AB effect


The four “editied  Maxwell’s equations, which mainstream physics (and Bruhn) uses, omits scalar and vector potentials.


Cyril Smith, an electrical engineer from the UK, has argued that the vector potential is more basic; electric and magnetic fields are its manifestation [15].


The web site Montalk.net appears to show how the motion of an electro-magnetic wave can be represented by the magnetic vector potential. Since there is only one fundamental field, this website argues that an “aether” medium is indeed needed for the field to propagate. (In classical EM theory, an “aether” medium was dismissed as unnecessary since the electric and magnetic fields mutually propagate one another.)  The website also argues that, given the “aether” and the vector potential, an electric field may be propagated without a magnetic field under some circumstances, which is sometimes called a “curl-free [gradient-free] vector potential” [16]. The result is a longitudinal EM [aka “scalar”] wave. An example would be a flat plate radiating alternating (AC) EM. The website also suggests these are what Maxwell meant when he referred to “displacement current”. [17]


The “curl-free vector potential field” has been scientifically validated, not only because a patent has been granted for using this field to transmit EM information fields [18], but also because the concept is written about in an Indian technical journal, Pramana. [19]


Chen Ning Yang, of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York, confirms that Maxwell identified his vector potential with Faraday's electrotonic state. He also notes that the vector and scalar potentials do have measurable meaning in quantum mechanics, and should not be completely eliminated.. [20]

This fact has been confirmed in other papers, including one from Caltech. [21]


In 1959, Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm proposed that a moving electron can have its phase altered (ie, a quantum effect) by the vector potential of the electromagnetic field of a nearby object, without actually encountering the object or its magnetic field. Using an advanced form of electron microscope, in several sets of tests, Akira Tonomura demonstrated conclusively in 1982 and 1986  that the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect was real. “Physicists may differ in their interpretation of the AB effect, but no one doubts its existence”. [22]


Dr. Bruhn, who has denied the existence of scalar fields, has also argued that vector potential cannot exist in the physical world, because its effects cancel out. He argues that “The AB-effect does not depend on "super world" properties of A that are not visible in the physical world – the knowledge of H (the magnetic field) is sufficient.” [23]

Since vector potential has a measurable meaning in quantum physics, and if, as some scientists insist, macroscopic quantum systems exist in the form of biological systems, perhaps vector potential has some validity in the macroscopic biological world. Even if Bruhn is correct, that the vector potential cancels out, the AB-effect is real in the quantum world, and possibly by extension, in the macroscopic biological world. Could those researchers reporting the effects of vector potential fields actually be observing a macroscopic AB-effect?

Glen Rein’s coil experiments: the “quantum potential field”


Glen Rein places Scalar waves or fields into the same group as longitudinal, force-free, time reversed, tachyon, and solitary waves. He uses the inclusive term “quantum potential field” to refer to any of these fields, which he calls  subtle energy fields. [24] He has used various coil configurations to access these subtle energy fields:


Both mobius and caduceus coils [see glossery.doc or glossery.htm] are described in sources as having unusual properties, including the production of “scalar waves”. Rein notes that mobius and caduceus electrical coils  result in local anomalies with respect to energy,  temperature, inertia, mass and gravity measurements. The annals of free energy research abound with legendary anomalies from these coils.  [25]


The geometry of mobius/bifilar and caduceus coil windings is very different. The caduceus coil windings  precludes complete cancellation of opposing currents. Rein notes that even the fields associated with the self canceling mobius coil will have a unique and complex set of harmonics based on constructive and destructive interference of certain frequencies. In short, the fields produced by both Caduceus and Mobius coils are complex and not easily modeled mathematically.  What part of these complex fields represent effective subtle energies; and are the subtle energies of both types of coils identical? How do we know the resulting effective field is “scalar”?


A bifilar coil, [see Glossery] using more simplified geometric windings, was used to determine the relative roles of quantum, potential, and EM fields. William Tiller of Stanford provided calculations for the strength of the magnetic (B) and vector potential (A) fields. Both were found to be very small. 10-12 for B and 10-14 for A.  The primary field present then, was the scalar, or quantum field. In spite of this, the bifilar coil produced a small increase in UV absorption, and from this Glen Rein concludes that quantum fields, aka “scalar waves” exist, are distinct from B (EM) and A (potential) fields, and are able to induce a measurable macroscopic effect on water.


Tom Bearden and “scalar EM waves”

Tom Bearden is the most outspoken of the scalar wave advocates, however, he is a rather controversial figure. Vector fields can evidently be assembled by properly interfering scalar potentials (predicted in 1903-4 by mathematician E.T. Whittaker and probably engineered by the Soviets).” Conversely, scalar fields can be created by destructively interfering vector fields, in a nonlinear medium. Varying the vector components rhythmically produces what Bearden calls "scalar waves". These are described as ripples in spacetime, and are said to induce a wavelike stress in the "aether" [26]


During the cold war, Bearden and Eldon Byrd, both maverick physicists, are said to have discovered the Russian development of scalar standing energy as a possible weapon.

Bearden alleges that T. H. Morey successfully produced a “Prigogine” transistor; ie, an over unity energy devise, whose existence is justified by Ilya Prigogine’s conception of Dissipative Structures, in which a structure can become self organizing if it has an incoming supply of material and energy. Prigogine’s theory, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1977, allows for a decrease in entropy in far from equilibrium conditions. [27] Bearden asserts that Morey assembled a collection of these transistors to form a “scalar interferometer” and collector of the disintegrated "energy" (virtual particle flux) from the quantum vacuum. [28] So Bearden’s “scalar energy” appears to be energy from the quantum vacuum, or Zero Point Energy.


Bearden announced the arrival of the over-unity “Motionless Electromagnetic Generator” (MEG) in 2002.

This devise, patented by Bearden and  four others, is said to function by extraction of vacuum (ZP) energy, presumably from scalar interferometry, but its performance has apparently never been independently verified. [29] “Scalar waves” have now been associated with the fringe science areas of UFOs and EVP.  (Electronic Voice Phenomena) [30]


Teslar wristwatches

Drs. Robert Beck, Robert Becker, Eldon Byrd, Andrija Puharich, Dr. Victor Adamenko and others confirmed the negative health effects of extremely low EM frequencies (ELF). According to Valerie Hunt, the result was a milli-volt scalar wave generator which was refined and commercialized as a “Teslar” (after Nikola Tesla) shielding wrist watch by the ELF company. This wristwatch is said to protect the wearer from destructive environmental radiation. [31] Interestingly, Dr. Glen Rein in the US, and Dr. Anthony Scott-Morley in England have provided data supporting the effectiveness of this devise. References show Rein associates the watch with scalar energy, while this study has found no such scalar  references by Scott-Moreley. [32] Randi.org quack-busters notes the endorsements by four MD/PhDs should be “seriously looked into.” Aside from complaining about the price of these devises, no data disproving the endorsements is provided. [33]


Several references state the watch produces an 8 Hertz oscillation, which corresponds to the fundamental frequency (7.8 Hz) of the Schumann Resonance. [34]


Valerie Hunt and Bioscalar/Bio-Scalar Energy

Valerie Hunt has climbed aboard the Bearden scalar energy bandwagon, coining the term “Bio-Scalar energy”. Unfortunately, most internet sources refer to Hunt’s paper, and many are commercial. Even chapter 10 of  the book Vibrational Energy Healing, [35] titled Bio-Scalar Energy  merely quotes from Hunt’s paper,

Bioscalar Energy: The Healing Power  Dr Valerie Hunt 2000 [36]. With all due respect to Dr. Hunt, although she presents some interesting information, her account of bio-scalar energy does not seem to hang together very well.
A brief synopsys: Hunt was struck by the lack of EM healing energy, typical of healers, emanating from psychic surgeons. She thought of Tom Bearden, Eldon Byrd, and scalar energy, which consists of a standing wave resulting from the cancellation of opposing EM waves. She found that when the mind is focused, it can direct EM waves to enter the body from opposite sides, creating scalar, or bio-scalar energy. She then states that bio-scalar energy is the sustained energy which all successful healers are able to manipulate. Bearden believes that scalar energy resides in the nucleus of the atom and carries information. Your intention manipulates the scalar energy which has pooled from the atoms of the body. At the Max Planck Institute in Germany, in 1950, it was found that when a mechanically created scalar wave was directed into a petrie dish of living cells, the cells separated, and became more active. Rein questioned how much of the effect on bio-tissue could be uniquely attributed to the scalar wave since it exists in a larger EM field.
“Bio-Scalar Energy” here corresponds nicely to Glen Rein’s quantum potential field, for which he has apparently supplied hard data.


[2] Though sometimes they are just assumed to be the Zero Point Field. http://peswiki.com/index.php/PowerPedia:Scalar_field_theory


[5] For example:

Exact solutions of Einstein and Einstein-scalar equations in 2 + 1 dimensions

Generating Minimally Coupled Einstein-Scalar Field Solutions from Vacuum Solutions with Arbitrary Cosmological Constant
Dark Energy:
Scalar Field Theory


[8] See Subtle Energy, Science, and Health  ..\human_energy_field\subtle_energy.doc


[11] http://www.backyardastronomy.net/schumann_resonance.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longitudinal_wave. Recently, Haifeng Wang et al. proposed a method that can generate longitudinal electromagnetic (light) wave in free space, and this wave can propagate without divergence for a few wavelengths.


[15] Is a Living System a Macroscopic Quantum System? Cyril W. Smith, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, England.Frontier Perspectives Fall/Winter 1998 pp 9-15 Notes in htm

[16] http://www.montalk.net/notes/transverse-waves

curl-free vector potential


According to H.M. Schey (div grad curl and all that an informal text on vector calculus), the EM (magnetic and electric) fields depend not only on vector, but also scalar potential:


Magnetic field = del cross (vector potential) = del cross A = curl A

Electric field =  -del (scalar potential)  - partial of (vector potential) with respect to time


The apparent conflict between Schey and Montalk is resolved by noting that scalar (electric) potential only exists if  curl A = 0; ie there is no magnetic field.


The term “vector potential” is used in electromagnetic theory and scalar (electric)  potential in electrostatics only.



On the other hand, there is also no magnetic field in a curl free magnetic vector potential.

A scalar magnetic potential also exists, but applies only to sources ?

See also http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/Numbers/Math/Mathematical_Thinking/maxwells_equations.htm

See also  ..\appendix\vectorp.doc  or ..\appendix\vectorp.htm


[17] http://www.montalk.net/notes/longitudinal-waves

However, Basil Mahon’s biography The Man Who Changed Everything suggests displacement current is merely the “leap frog  interaction of the electric and magnetic fields.


[18] A system for transmission of EM information using a curl-free magnetic vector potential radiation field: http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP0050523.html


[19] Observability of the effects of curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale and the nature of the ‘transition amplitude wave’

[20] Vector Potential, Gauge Field and Connection on a Fiber Bundle http://qhxb.lib.tsinghua.edu.cn/myweb/english/98n1/980101.html

[21] http://ww.cithep.caltech.edu/~fcp/physics/quantumMechanics/paths/paths.pdf  see chapter 3: Is the Vector Potential Real?


[22] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Profile of Akira Tonomura




We discuss here the prediction, based on a formalism by the author, on the observable effects of a curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale as against the microscale of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. A new quantum concept — the ‘transition amplitude wave’ — postulated in the formalism has already been shown to exhibit matter wave manifestations in the form of one-dimensional interference effects on the macroscale. It was predicted by the formalism that the same entity would lead to the detection of a curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale. We describe here the manner of generation of this quantum entity in an inelastic scattering episode and work out an algorithm to observe this radically new phenomenon, the detection of a curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale. We determine the various characteristic features of such an observation which can then be looked for experimentally so as to verify the predicted effect, establishing thereby the physical reality of the new quantum entity, and to fully validate the formalism predicting it. It is also shown that this ‘transition amplitude wave’ can be regarded as a novel kind of ‘quasiparticle’ excited in the charged particle trajectory as a consequence of the scattering episode.



[24] Glen Rein The Biological Effects of Quantum Fields www.item-bioenergy.com/infocenter/BiologicalEffectsofQuantumFields.pdf