BION: Institute for Bioelectromagnetics and New Biology


Ultraweak Bioluminescence
(Biophoton Research)

The findings of this research field are not very well known, although they have been known and studied for over half a century. Research began with the famous Gurwich mitogenetic radiation. Today ultraweak bioluminescence is studied worldwide and includes many important findings. The light emitted from organisms was found to be coherent, laser like, and typically radiating with intensities of a few tens up to few hundreds of photons/(cm^2*s). So the measurements are taken with a photomultiplier in the photon counting mode. The light has been discovered in all groups of organisms and in various biological materials (tissues, whole organisms, eggs, seeds, etc.)

The ultraweak bioluminescence is produced by decaying of highly excited molecular states. These states are the side products of some encimatic oxsidative processes in animal cells. In plant cells the main production of excited states takes place in chloroplasts in tilakoid membrane. The energy of these states is transported to the emitter structures, which differ in plant (chloroplasts) and animal (nucleus) cells. The process of ultraweak bioluminescence is very sensitive on cell physiological state. Usually the stress causes the increase of bioluminescence intensity. The ultraweak bioluminescence shows the constant production of excited species. The steady state population of these states can be very high, which can be shown as increase of luminescence after the addition of new fluorescent molecules. The excited molecules can also play a role in bio-chemical reactions, which are thermally forbidden.

Further reading:

Popp, F.A./Li, K.H./Gu, Q. Recent advances in biophoton research and its applications, World Scientific 1992

Chang, J.J./Fisch, J./Popp, F.A . Biophotons. Dordrecht, Boston, London . Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Cen, Y.P./Bjorn, L.O. Action spectra for enhancement of ultraweak luminescence by UV radiation (270-340) in leaves of Brassica napus. Jour. Photobiol. B:Biol., 22(1994), s. 125-129

Chwirot, W.B./Dygala, R.S./Chwirot, S. Quasi-monochromatic-light-induced photon emission from mikrosporocytes of larch showing oscillating decay behaviour by an electromagnetic model of differantiation. Cytobios 47 (1986), s. 137-146

Cliento, G. Photobiochemistry without light. Experientia, 44 (1988), s. 572-576

Freifelder, D. Physical Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman and Company, 1982, 501 s.

Gurwitsch, A.A. A historical review of the problem of mitogenetic radiation. Experientia, 44(1988), s. 545-550

Hideg, E./Bjorn, L.O. Ultraweak light emission, free radicals, chilling and light sensitivity. Physiologia Plantarum, 98(1996), s. 223-228

Hideg, E./Kobayashi, M./Inaba, H. Ultraweak photoemission from dark-adapted leaves and isolated chloroplasts. FEBS Lett., 275 (1990) n.1-2, s.121-124

Kai, S./Mitani, T./Fujikawa, M. Anomalous Biophoton Emission during Germination Process of Red Bean. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32 (1993), s. 417-419

Kai, S./Ohya, T/Moriya K./Fujimoto, T. Growth Control and Biophoton Radiation by Plant Hormones in Red Bean. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1995), s. 6530-6538

Lasher, G./ Stern, F. Spontaneous and Stimulated Recombination in Semiconductors. Physical Review A, 133(1964), s. 553-563

Lilius, E.M./ Marnila, P. Photon emission of phagocytes in relation to stress and disease. Experientia, 48 (1992), s. 1082-1069

Loudon R. The quantum theory of light. London. Oxford University Press, 1973, 221 s.

Moan, J./Peak, M.J. Effects of UV Radiation on Cells. Jour. of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 4(1989), s. 21-34

Popp, F.A./ Ruth, B./Boehm, J./Gras, P./Groelig, G./Rattmeyer, M./Schmidt, H.G./Wulle, P. Emission of Visible and Ultraviolet Radiation by Active Biological Systems. Collective Phenomena, 3(1981), s.187-214

Popp, F.A./Li, K.H./Mei, W.P./Galle, M./Neurohr R. Physical aspects of biophotons. Experientia, 44 (1988), s. 576-585

Rattemeyer, M./Popp, F.A: Evidence of photon emission from DNK in living systems, Naturwiss., 68(S)(1981), s.572

Ruth, B.(1979): Experimental investigations on ultraweak photon emission. v knjigi: Electromagnetic Bio-Information (Popp, F.A./Becker/Koenig/Pescha). Munchen, Wien, Baltimore. Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1979, 107 s.

Scott, R.Q./Usa, M./Inaba, H. Ultraweak Emission Imagery of Mitosing Soybeans. Appl. Phys. B 48(1989), s. 183-185

Shen, Z./Wang, J./Guan, H. Effects of Aluminium and Calcium on Growth of Wheat Seedlings and Germination of Seeds. Jour. of Plant Nutrition, 16(11) (1993), s. 2135-2148

Slavinski, J./Ezzahir, A./Godlewski, M./Kwiecinska, T./Rajfur, Z./Sitko, D./ Wierzuchowska, D. Stress-induced photon emission from perturbed organisms. Experientia, 48 (1992), s.1041-1058

Šlaski, J.J. Differences in the metabolic responses of root tips of wheat and rye to aluminium stress. Plant and Soil, 167 (1994), s. 165-171

Tilbury, R.N. The effect of stress on the spontaneous photon emission from microorganisms. Experientia 48 (1992), s. 1041-1058

Wijk, R. Van/ Schamhar, D.H.J. Regulatory aspects of low intensity photon emission. Experientia 44 (1988), s. 586-593

Wijk, R. van/Aken J.M. van. Photon emission in tumor biology. Experientia, 48(1992), s. 1092-1102