notes on Quest for Zero Point Energy: Engineering Principles for "Free Energy" by Moray B. King
In the book Gravitation by Misner, Thorne, and John Wheeler, Wheeler's theory of geometrodynamics is discussed. The fabric of empty space is described as a quantum foam of fluctuating electric fields at an energy density of 10 to the 94th g/cm3 [p 9]
today's physics might allow tapping virtually limitless quanities of energy by merging theories of ZPE and theories of self- organization.... The real issue is how the random ZPE fluctuations could become coherent. [p 13]
Ila Prigogine won 1977 Nobel Prize in chemistry for defining the conditions under which a system could evolve from randomness towards coherence. The conditions are: far rom equilibrium; non linear dynamics, and have an energy flux through it. It turns out that ZPE can, under certain circumstances, fulfill these conditions.... [p 14]
The term zero point.refers to zero degrees kelvin, which means this energy exists even in the absence of all heat.... Dirac showed how an electron positron pair production could arise from vacuum fluctuations, and quantum-electrodynamics was born... The Heisenburg uncertainty principle allowed QM systems to "borrow" this energy for brief periods. The ether came back into science not as a substance, but as a rendomly fluctuating energy. [ p 15]
the coherent oscillations of nuclei in a plasma is known as the ion-acoustic mode, and it has been associated with anomolous plasma behavior including anomolous heating. TH Moray stressed the importance of ion oscillations in the plasma tubes of his invention that produced 50 kw of anomolous electrical power in the 1930s. [p. 17]
Another experiment where coherent oscillations of nuclei could be the source of anomalous heat is the electrolytic "cold fusion" experiments of Pons and Fleischmann.... The difficulty in repeating the heat anomaly may have to do with the difficulty of achieving supersaturation, and failing to use pure crystaline palladium. Nonetheless, this is probably the first repeatable experiment in which at least some other scinetists were able to produce an energy anomaly. [p. 17]
Russian Chernetskii claims that he has created a plasma device that absorbs ZPE when the plasma's particles undergo cycloid motion. Energy producing inventions by Searl, Spence, and Papp also have cycloid partical motion of plasma... Ball lightning is a candidate for ZPE interaction, because it has been modeled as a vortex ring plasmoid whose particles undergo precessional cycloid motion. cycloid motion within ferrites used by free energy devises of Coler & Sweet[p 18.]
The expectation of gravitational anomalies associated with coherence of ZPE arises directly from general relativity. Gravity is described as curvature of space-time induced bythe stress energy tensor. If the ZPE has an enormous energy density, then even a small coherence could produce measurable gravitational anomalies. [p. 19]
Boyer (1975) shows how the blackbody radiation spectrum as well as other quantum events is attributed o the zpe. Senitsky (1973) has suggested that an elementary particle's very existance is intertwined with the zpe. Puthoff (1987) has shown that the hydrogen atom's stability is due to a zpe interaction which prevents the electron from collapsing into the nucleus. Puthoff (1989) has also shown how gravity can be derived from the action of the zpe, and recently Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff (1994) have shown that the zpe could be the basis of inertia as well. There have also been proposed zpe models for the photon and electron. zpe might well be the primary underpining of all physics. [p 30]
Forward (1984)invented a simple battery based on the Casimer effect. Casimer predicted and experimentally demonstrated that the zp fluctuations induced a 1/d**4 attraction between two parallel conductive plates. Forward's battery uses charged foils whose spacing is so thin that the 1/d**4 attraction overcomes the 1/d**2 culomb repulsion and results in a DC current output. This proved in principle, that the zpe can be tapped as an energy source. [p. 31]
surprising stability of high charge density electron beads discovered by Ken Shoulders, called "electrum validum". Shoulders states that energy output greatly exceeds the energy input to create them. These beads appear to be a self organized structure akin to ball lightning or toridal plasmoids [p. 31] ...micron size charged plasmoid which can persist indefinately on a dielectric surface. [p. 57]
The greatest zpe coherence may arise in experiments creating a vortex or processional flow.[p 39]
Another method for cohering zpe involves abruptly bucking EM fields. When EM fields are in perfect opposition, the field vectors cancel. However, there still exists a stress in the fabric of space and it manifests as a scalar EM potential. Aharonov and Bohm (1959) have shown that the EM potential affects the phase of the quantum mechanical wave function associated with elementary particles. Bearden (1986) has emphasized that the resultant stress is actually a coherence in the zpe and can propagate as scalar waves. [p. 41]
Quantum electrodynamics (QED) shows how the various elementary particles interact with the zpe via vacuum polarization. Electrons in conductors exhibit random polarization, where the electron cloud is in thermodynamic equlibrium with the zp fluctuations. The atomic nuclei exhibit an orderly vacuum polarization. The abrupt motion of the ion or nuclei would be expected to bring a cohering effect to the zp fluctuations. This occures in plasmas during ion-acustic resonance. [p. 52-53]
Reed has overviewed vortex theories, and has concluded the "force free" vortex is a likely candidate for maximizing a ZPE interaction. The force free vortex originally arose in hydrodynamics, and is represented by del X v= kv where v is the fluid velocity vector and k is a constant. The curl of the fluid flow is in the same direction as the flow itself. The name "force free" applies because a fluid can spiral in this manner without being constrained by an external force. The curl equation gives rise to a set of helical solutions where the pitch of the helix is fixed and the radius varies. Solutions are allowed where the radius gradually shrinks and the velocity increases concentrating energy toward the vortex tip. [p. 54]
The logarithmic spiral, one form of force free vortex, which appears often in nature, might be a good zpe candiadate [p 55]
Pumping charged plasma or fluid through a pipe shaped as a force free vortexwhose radius contracts along a log spiral might work.
It is difficult to force matter to undergo precession, yet when it does, anomalies have been reported. Schauberger empirically designed a tapered force free vortex which caused water pumped though it to undergo a second order precessional spin (spin within a spin). He claimed anomalous energy gain, as well as a peculiar bluish glow around the apparatus.
When water is excited by ultrasonics, it emitts a bluish glow called sonoluminescence. Barber and Putterman claim the phenomena represents an energy amplification on the order of 100 billion. Nobel laureate Schwinger (1993) has proposed a ZPE interaction to explain this anomaly. [p. 56]
A zpe coherence might also be triggered in highly stressed polarized dielectrics.
Another energetic anomaly that occurs in solids is fractoemission. When a crystal is cracked, it can sometimes manifest a persistent plasmoid-like form that is akin to earthquake lights (ball lightningformation by ground fissures)[p 57]
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