On August 29, 1831, Michael Faraday wound half of a thick iron ring with insulated wire that was connected to a battery. He then wound the other half of the ring with wire connected to a galvanometer. What he expected was that a "wave" would be produced when the battery circuit was closed and that the wave would show up as a deflection of the galvanometer in the second circuit. He closed the primary circuit and, to his delight and satisfaction, saw the galvanometer needle jump.  A current had been induced in the secondary coil by one in the primary. When he opened the circuit, however, he was surprised to see the galvanometer jump in the opposite direction. Somehow, turning off the current also created an induced current in the secondary circuit, equal and opposite to the original current. Faraday attributed this unexpected current to what he called the "electrotonic" state of particles in the wire.


In his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism,  James Clerk Maxwell admired Faraday, and felt this concept of an electrotonic state was worthy of study. With the aid of work by George Green, William Thompson, and George Gabriel Stokes, Maxwell found a mathematical expression that matched exactly Faraday’s concept of the electrotonic state. He developed a physical interpretation for Faraday’s electrotonic state: the angular momentum of a localized electromagnetic field. Like a flywheel, the localized field would store energy, reacting with a counterforce to resist any change in angular momentum. This takes the form of an electromotive force which could drive a current.

In the Dynamical Theory Paper,  Maxwell expressed his results in 8 equations for the electric and magnetic fields. One of the concepts thus expressed was Faraday’s electrotonic state, which in Maxwell’s scheme, became the momentum of the field. Oliver Heaviside  condensed the results to the abbreviated four equation modern form.

Chen Ning Yang, of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York, confirms that Maxwell identified his vector potential with Faraday's electro-tonic state [1].

According to Marc Seifer, Heinrich Hertz created an elegant mathematical interpretation of Maxwell’s equations, but at the expense of some aspects of Maxwell’s theory, most notably vector and scalar potentials. Duplicating Hertz’ s work,  Nikola Tesla postulated that these components  should not have been eliminated. [2] Hertz’ s decision to eliminate scalar potentials was also a puzzlement to Oliver Heaviside, who corresponded frequently with the German scientist during the same period. “ I am quite sure you have gone further on than Maxwell,” Heaviside wrote in 1889, “but electrostatical  (scalar) potential and magnatical (scalar) potential ought to remain I think.” Heaviside, however,  like Hertz, was in agreement with the idea of dispensing with vector potentials.[3]


Ning Yang notes: “ Heaviside, a brilliant engineer, was very happy with this simplification of Maxwell’s equations. He wrote that it brought “to light interesting relations which were formerly hidden from view by the intervention of the vector potential A, and its parasites J and Ψ. E. Whittaker agreed enthusiastically with Heaviside: The great service which Heaviside now rendered to science was to clear away this accumulation of rubbish...However, the vector and scalar potentials do have measurable meaning in quantum mechanics, and should not be completely eliminated..” [4]The generations-old dogma, which had started with the work of Hertz and of Heaviside mentioned above, that the vector and scalar potentials were not physically meaningful, had created great resistance toward assigning any physically meaningful role to these potentials.  [5]


In 1959, Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm proposed that a moving electron can have its phase altered by the vector potential of the electromagnetic field of a nearby object, without actually encountering the object or its magnetic field. Using an advanced form of electron microscope, in several sets of tests, Akira Tonomura demonstrated conclusively in 1982 and 1986  that the Aharonov-Bohm effect was real. “Physicists may differ in their interpretation of the AB effect, but no one doubts its existence”. [6] A brief physics description of the AB effect is provided by the Indian Academy of Sciences. [7]

Cyril Smith, British Professor of Bio-Electrical Engineering, has argued that the vector potential is more basic; electric and magnetic fields are its manifestation. He found that an alternating vector potential carries frequency information which may be imprinted on water. He also found that a magnetic field is required to "format" the water to enable it to accept this vector potential frequency information. [8]


A Hungarian study has confirmed the biological effects of the vector potential via its effects on water. [9]

Dr. William Tiller associates the magnetic vector potential to the “subtle domain” [10] Basically Tiller says that human consciousness can generate a physical space "conditioned" by subtle energy, that this subtle energy is related to the magnetic vector potential of classical electrodynamics, and that this subtle energy may result in psi phenomena.

Tiller asserts that human consciousness in the form of specific intention can be imprinted onto a simple low tech electronic devise (called an IIED: an intention imprinted electrical devise) from a deep human meditative state.  When the IIED is placed in a room it creates a "conditioned space". In a conditioned space oscillations of air and water temp. pH, electrical conductivity of water are global throughout the room. all exhibit same fourier spectral components and are in freq range of 10-2 10-3 hz. Such an effect on the pH of water is thought to require the accessing of magnetic momopoles, a property usually associated with a higher EM gauge symmetry state than normal.[11]

The connection between vector potential and subtle energy has been made frequently on the internet. [12]



It has been said that Maxwell's original equations provided the groundwork for gravitational propulsion and psychoactive devices. From a survey of the scientific  literature, the connection between inertial forces and vector potential can be supported . The Vector Potential is now being explored for manipulating mass (ie gravity) for space exploration.[13]

Interestingly, a connection between inertial forces and the zero point field can also be supported. [14]


In the early 1970’s, William Hooper had been showing that not all electrical fields are the same.  What he called a “motional” electrical field results in a force that can pass through lead, ie. It is unshieldable. [HAARP 14] This is in contrast to the well know electrostatic fields. He holds a US patent on the "All Electric Motional Field Generator." The motional electric field  is not convergent, but uniformly vertical.[15]


[1] Vector Potential, Gauge Field and Connection on a Fiber Bundle http://qhxb.lib.tsinghua.edu.cn/myweb/english/98n1/980101.html

[2] Mark Seifer  The Life and Times of  Nikola Tesla: Biography of a Genius p. 96

[3] Seifer p. 498 note 56

[6] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Profile of Akira Tonomura

[8] Is a Living System a Macroscopic Quantum System? Cyril W. Smith, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, England.Frontier Perspectives Fall/Winter 1998 pp 9-15 Notes in htm


[9] http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a912614040

Effect of Curl-Free Potentials on Water 

Budapest, Hungary


Living objects are complex systems with various harmonized chemical, thermodynamical, and quantum-mechanical processes in aqueous electrolyte environment. We had studied the effect of curl-free magnetic vector-potential on the matrix of the living matter, on the water. The discussed theoretical considerations are in harmony with the presented simple experiments. It is shown that the vector-potential is actually an effective electro-dynamical parameter which could modify the processes in living systems.


[10] Some Science Adventures With Real Magic, William Tiller PhD Walter Dibble, Jr., PhD. p. 21, p.265.


[11] Some Science Adventures With Real Magic, William Tiller PhD Walter Dibble, Jr., PhD. p. 36.

[12] For example:

Subtle Energy Actions and Physical Domain Correlations

The existence of the magnetic vector potential yields the successful quantitative connection in the physical domain of the activity of the subtle energy ...
twm.co.nz/energy_tiller.htm - 42k - Cached - Similar pages

Institute of HeartMath Subtle Energy Research

Subtle energy is used in this context as Einstein used it, that is, ... (A) The magnetic vector potential fields include both an electrodynamic part and ...
www.rialian.com/rnboyd/heart-math.htm - 7k - Cached - Similar pages

(montalk.net) Research Notes: Potential Fields

There are three main potential fields: magnetic vector potential `bb A`, ... potential fields have subtle effects on reality at the quantum level. ...
montalk.net/notes/potential-fields-primer - 17k - Cached - Similar pages


Published in: Frontier Perspectives Vol. 7: 16-23, 1998

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
of “subtle energy”. Even Einstein himself used the term subtle to refer to ..... The vector potential (A) field in the solenoid coil is also not strong ...
www.item-bioenergy.com/infocenter/BiologicalEffectsofQuantumFields.pdf - Similar pages

Neue Seite 1

The known magnetic vector potential appears to have the role of a ... As a part of consciousness, subtle thought energy is able to control the cosmic ...
www.worlditc.org/c_07_senki_d_29.htm - 40k - Cached - Similar pages

Thought Energy Synhcronization and Doctor Gregory Nicosia

Subtle energy wave flow along the etheric meridians causes transduced ..... And all are based on magnetic vector potential and natural energy fields. ...
www.thoughtenergy.com/te/research.htm - 82k - Cached - Similar pages


[13] 18 October 1979   Abstract  We develop here a new unified theory of the electromagnetic and gravitational field, based on a six-dimensional generalization of Maxwell's equations; additional space-time coordinates are interpreted only as mathematical tools in order to obtain a linear realization of the four-dimensional conformal group. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p8l1p78m61g0w1v8/


Note: Einstein's vision I: Classical unified field equations for gravity and electromagnetism using Riemannian quaternions http://world.std.com/~sweetser/arch/unified_field.2001.09.01/unified_field.html


·  Inertial Forces and the Vector Potential
Manipulating mass for space exploration University of Lisbon Portugal Alexandre A. Martins and  Mario J. Pinheiro of the University of Lisbon (Portugal) have written a paper Inertial Forces and the Vector Potential, which suggests the possibility of  manipulating  inertial mass for space propulsion systems. [13] This article was included in the Smithsonian/ NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service.



·  The Connection between Inertial Forces and the Vector Potential
Smithsonisn NASA: Martins article: Abstract:
The inertia property of matter is discussed in terms of a type of induction law related to the extended charged particle's own vector potential. Our approach is based on the Lagrangian formalism of canonical momentum writing Newton's second law in terms of the vector potential and a development in terms of obtaining retarded potentials, that allow an intuitive physical interpretation of its main terms. This framework provides a clear physical insight on the physics of inertia. It is shown that the electron mass has a complete electromagnetic origin and the covariant equation obtained solves the “4/3 mass paradox”. This provides a deeper insight into the significance of the main terms of the equation of motion. In particular a force term is obtained from the approach based on the continuity equation for momentum that represents a drag force the charged particle feels when in motion relatively to its own vector potential field lines. Thus, the time derivative of the particle's vector potential leads to the acceleration inertia reaction force and is equivalent to the Schott term responsible for the source of the radiation field. We also show that the velocity dependent term of the particle's vector potential is connected with the relativistic increase of mass with velocity and generates a stress force that is the source of electric field lines deformation. This understanding broadens the possibility to manipulate inertial mass and potentially suggests some mechanisms for possible applications to electromagnetic propulsion and the development of advanced space propulsion physics. ©2007 American Institute of Physics




It is not commonly known that gravity can be modeled using an equivalent
set of Maxwell type equations, predicting that a moving mass produces
electric and magnetic field components of gravity. In electromagnetic
theory, Maxwell Equations reduces to Coulomb's law for quasistatic
charges, whereas in the gravitational case it reduces to Newton's equation.


[14] Such concepts are compatible with the Zero Point Field understanding of Newton’s  Law of Motion (Force equals mass times acceleration). Bernie Haisch had read some of Hal Puthoff’s papers and got interested in the ZPF. He was inspired by the work of Paul Davies and William Unruh at the U of BC. They had found that if you move at constant speed through a vacuum, it all looks the same, but as you accelerate, the vacuum begins to appear like a lukewarm sea of heat radiation from your perspective. Haisch talked Alfonso Rueda into doing a mathematical analysis of an idealized oscillator moving thru the ZPF. He found that an oscillator forced to move thru the ZPF will experience a resistance proportional to the acceleration. Thus Newton’s law f=ma can be derived from electrodynamics. Puthoff, Rueda, and Haisch collaborated on a paper that Haisch wrote, and it was published, unchanged, in Physical Review. In the paper they show that inertia is a "lorentz force" - a force that slows particles moving thru a magnetic field.
http://www.calphysics.org/articles/sst97.pdf  See also The Field Lynn McTaggart Harper Collins 2001 p. 32 f.


[15] [ http://www.rexresearch.com/hooper/3610971.htm]