Aristotle believed that force causes motion, but his thoughts on motion were vague.[i] Galileo believed more accurately that motion is normal; that force causes a change in motion.
The conceptual giant of “Newtonian Mechanics” developed over the next decades after the Principia, and required the contribution of many more scientists. The Newtonian universe is made up of matter in empty space. Although Newtonian Mechanics applies only to the motions of macroscopic bodies, it was thought by its supporters that if one had the necessary data, the actions of the universe could be predicted, like clockwork, at any given time in the future. The clockwork universe lends itself to the concept of absolute time and space.
with the assumption of absolute time and space , the
Newtonian clockwork universe was doomed to failure. The French Mathematician
Henri Poincare dealt perhaps the first blow to the idea when he found that
Nevertheless, Newtonian Mechanics dominated western science for centuries
[i] Aristotle said "motion is the fulfillment of what exists potentially insofar as it exists potentially"
Change and motion: Calculus made clear The Teaching Company
[ii] The First law or law of inertia: Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by forces impressed. The Second Law: A change in motion is proportional to the motive force impressed and takes place along the straight line in which that force is impressed.
The Third law; For every action, there is a reaction
Note that the Force = Mass times Acceleration formulation did not occur in any of the three editions of the Principia.
[iii] Turbulent Mirror. John Briggs and F.David Peat Harper Row, 1989 p.27
James Gleick has written that Chaos is the science of detecting order in apparent randomness. Chaos