**Grand Unification: **

In the mid 1860s, James Clerk Maxwell** ** integrated the basic equations of
electromagnetism into a coherent whole, [1] a
Grand Unified Theory of Electromagnetism.

Einstein showed that Maxwell’s
equations worked perfectly through Lorentz’s transformation, but *the* basic laws of the physical world.

Einstein wanted to expand his general theory of gravity to
include Maxwell’s Equations. For the last 20 years of his life, he secluded
himself in a modest house in

Physicists have come to understand that the known universe is governed by the four mathematically expressed forces of gravity, electromagnetism (EM), and the weak and strong nuclear forces. The strong nuclear force holds the protons and neutrons of the nucleus together; the weak nuclear force allows neutrons to turn into protons, giving off radiation in the process. The atomic bomb releases the power of the strong nuclear force. Physicists since Einstein have been trying to understand gravity, and to reduce the expressions for the four forces of the universe to a single equation. [2]

Astronomers have discovered regions in space with enormous
gravitational pull. Most believe these regions are under the influence of black
holes, which are points, or singularities, so massive that gravity prevents
even light from escaping. Further, as already noted, the vacuum fluctuations in energy
density at every point in space are also enormous. However, Einstein’s General
Theory, today’s standard
theory of gravity, deals with large spaces and demands smooth
variations in space time. Currently science has no equations that can be
used to describe something that is both very massive, where normally the General Theory
would apply, and very small, where normally quantum mechanics would apply. [3]

According to Professor Alex Filippenko, unification of the electro-weak and strong nuclear force will require a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), while unification of the electro-weak and strong nuclear force with gravity will require a more difficult Theory Of Everything (TOE). [4]

The search is on to develop the
TOE, and some
think a primary contender is the next iteration in particle physics. “String” theory, or “Super String” theory.

`In 1967, Murray Gell-Mann was lecturing on the striking regularities in data pertaining to the collisions of protons and neutrons. An Italian grad student, Gabriele Veneziano, became intrigued, and found a simple math function that would describe the regularities. Why this function worked was presented in 1970 in the work of Leonard Susskind and Yoichiro Nambu. They found that Veneziano’s mathematical function would arise from the underlying theory if you modeled the protons and neutrons not as points, but as tiny vibrating strings. [5]`

`In 1984, John Schwarz and Michael Green resolved the last major inconsistency in string theory. This did not make the theory any easier to solve, but it convinced many leading physicists- especially Edward Witten- that the theory had too many miraculous properties to ignore. String theory then jumped from laughingstock to hottest thing in physics. [6]`

String theory asserts that all phenomena are made up not of
tiny particles, but of very tiny strings of energy, which vibrate in varying
ways. Edward Witten showed that the original 5 different versions of string
theory were merely different perspectives on the same thing. His mathematical
theory, called “M” theory,
requires 11 dimensions, and also predicts multiple universes. [7]

What is so alluring about String Theory? Its mathematical elegance; its aesthetics; some scientists think that certain relationships are so appealing that they must be correct. [8]

Leonard
Susskind states that
String Theory is based on Quantum Mechanics and describes a
system of elementary particles similar to those in our universe. However, unlike quantum mechanics, there is no experimental
data in support of string theory.

What kind of experimental data could support it? Evidence
of proton decay would do. The predicted rate of decay is very small;
significant proton decay would be detrimental to our existence, and, perhaps
fortunately, no evidence of proton decay has been found to date. [9]

Interestingly, in the esoteric tradition, as represented by Charles Leadbeater,
Annie Besant, and the Theosophists in the book Occult Chemistry (1919), the
most fundamental particles were described as positive and negative stringed
vortices of energy, called “Anu”; the “ultimate
atom”. The word is Sanskrit for atom or molecule, and a title of Brahma.
Needless to say, this concept of stringed vortices was not the product of
advanced mathematics.

“Anu”;
the “ultimate atom”. [10]

The hydrogen atom was said to consist of 18 Anu units; 9 positively charged, and 9 negatively charged
(antiparticles). Contemporary Anu proponents suppose
the positive and negative spiral allow a transfer of energy to and from the
zero point field. [11]

These
purported structures would
correspond to the hypothetical constituents of quarks, given the “Russian doll”
nature of matter. [12] In 1974, physicists Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam speculated
that a small family of particles they called preons
could explain the proliferation of quarks and leptons.

Although not currently in favor
with many physicists, the preon idea has not been
ruled out. In 1999, Johan Hansson and his coworkers
proposed that three types of preons would suffice to
build all the known quarks and leptons. [13]

The alternative physics community has developed a
mathematical concept strikingly similar to the Anu
concept: B.G. Sidharth, of the Centre for
Applicable Mathematics & Computer Sciences in India, writes: “The physical
picture is now clear: A particle can be pictured as a fluid vortex which is
steadily circulating along a ring (or in three dimensions, a spherical shell)
with radius equal to the Compton wavelength and with velocity equal to that of
light.” [14]
The topic is quantum black holes, the name is the
Compton Radius Vortex, described as another recent electron model by** **Richard Gauthier. [15]

Alternative
physicist *Frank D. (Tony) Smith, Jr. has used precisely
the Leadbeater Theosophist figure
of Anu to portray the *Compton Radius
Vortex*. *[16]

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell's_equations:

Gauss's law,
also known as Gauss's flux theorem,
is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric
field.

Gauss's law for magnetism is one of Maxwell's equations, the four equations
that underlie classical electrodynamics. It states that the magnetic field B has divergence equal to zero, in
other words, that it is a solenoidal vector field. It
is equivalent to the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist. Rather
than "magnetic charges", the basic entity for magnetism is the
magnetic dipole. (Of course, if monopoles were ever found, the law would have
to be modified, as elaborated below.)

Faraday's law of induction describes a basic law of electromagnetism, which is
involved in the working of transformers, inductors, and many forms of
electrical generators. The law states

The
induced electromotive force or EMF in any closed circuit is equal to the time
rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit.

Ampère's circuital law, discovered by André-Marie Ampère in 1826, relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop.

[2] According to Leonard Susskind, by the
1950s, Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, Sin-Itiro Tomanaga and Freeman Dyson had laid the foundation for a
synthesis of special relativity and quantum mechanics called Quantum Field
Theory. [Leonard Susskind, *The
Black Hole War* p. 7].The first
and most successful expression of QFT was Quantum Electrodynamics (QED).

The EM and weak forces have been unified. In high
energy interactions, we can’t tell the EM force from the Weak force. Steven
Weinberg et al got Nobel Prize for his development of “electro-weak” in 1979. [Notes on Teaching Company *Understanding the Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy* 2^{nd}
edition

Prof Alex Filippenko.
Cosmology sections Lecture 89.]

According to Paul Davies, in 1973, Sheldon Glashow and
Howard Georgi published a theory in which the new
electroweak force was merged with the strong gluon force to form a “grand
unified force,” the first Grand Unified Theory. Davies, *Superforce*, p. 130.

[3] In preparing groundwork for such equations, and a TOE,
Nobel prize winner Sheldon Glashow and colleague Andrew Cohen, of

http://physics.bu.edu/documents/ns.pdf

[4] [Filippenko lecture 89 ]

[5] Leonard MlodinowFeynman’s rainbowWarner books 2003, p. 99.

[6] *Feynman’s Rainbow* p. 169.

[7]
Paul Davies *Superforce*

[8] Filippenko lecture 89 Interestingly,
Susskind, with the publication of his latest books, *The Cosmic Landscape* and *The
Black Hole War* is at the epicenter of current thinking about the nature of
the universe. *The Cosmic Landscape *review: http://www.nyas.org/publications/readersReport.asp?articleID=48

[12] Atoms are made of protons and neutrons (together called
hadrons), along with lighter electrons. In turn, hadrons consist of particles
called quarks, of which there are six varieties. In addition, there are six
varieties of fundamental particles related to the electron, called leptons.

http://www.nature.com/news/2007/071130/full/news.2007.292.html